Senior Non-Key Expert (SNKE) to support ECOSOC to prepare and conduct a Study on “Unemployment in Lebanon"
Interested individuals will submit their application by email, to: [email protected]
- Subject: SNKE for Activity 2.3.4 b (Unemployment Study)
- Application letter (in English)
- CV in EU Standard Format (template can be requested from the project team)
Selection will be done based on pre-determined criteria. Only shortlisted candidates will be contacted.
The EU-funded Project “Promotion of Social Dialogue in Lebanon” aims to enhance the capacity of the Government of Lebanon and the Lebanese Social Partners and Civil Society to be promoters of Social Dialogue in order to strengthen social protection and improve and enforce labour legislation.
This project is funded by the European Union under the “Social Justice Programme” (SJP), which is comprised of eight projects. The SJP programme’s objective is to advocate for democracy, human rights and social justice in Lebanon, promoting good governance and gender equality at its core. Overall, the SJP programme supports the strengthening of the institutional framework for the protection of human rights and the development of democratic governance in Lebanon
The specific purpose of the Technical Assistance Contract between the EU and GOPA Consultants is to increase the capacities of the Ministry of Labour and Tripartite Social Partners to be promoters of social dialogue.
Three results have to be achieved in order to reach the purpose:
- Operational and legal framework for social dialogue developed
- Institutional and technical capacity of the Ministry of Labour and its tripartite social partners is* reinforced to promote social dialogue
- Tripartite social dialogue and collective bargaining are promoted at national level
The main beneficiary of the project is the Ministry of Labour (MoL), especially the “Professions and Trade Unions Department” and the “Labour Inspection, Prevention and Safety Department” of the MoL.
Technical Assistance is provided by a consortium consisting of GOPA Consultants (Germany) as the lead firm and EPTISA (Spain).
Other beneficiaries and partners of the project are the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the National Employment Office (NEO), Employer Organizations, Trade Unions, Civil Society Organisations and other relevant stakeholders involved in Social Dialogue.
The purpose of this TOR is to define the tasks and responsibilities of a Senior Non Key Expert (SNKE) to support ECOSOC in conducting a labour market study, focussing on unemployment, and the organisation of an event to disseminate results of the study at ECOSOC premises.
In close collaboration with the Team Leader (TL) and ECOSOC and supported by a team of Junior Non Key Experts, the technical services will be delivered by the SNKE for a period of up to 29 (twenty-nine) working days.
1. Background of the Study
The Lebanese labour market faces a number of serious problems. In addition to pre-existing economic difficulties, the Syrian conflict also had a noticeable negative impact on the labour market in Lebanon.
Labour market data in Lebanon is mostly scarce, incomplete, outdated and sometimes even contradictory. Nevertheless, it is commonly agreed that the Lebanese labour market is characterized mainly by
- Low activity rate and rising unemployment rates, especially among women and the youth
- Competition, pressure on wages and deteriorating working conditions, with an increase in informal employment. Lebanon faces a dramatic increase in the labour supply, putting considerable pressure on its fragile labour markets.
- Weak labour market governance and capacity of the government to adequately respond to the situation.
There are an estimated 1,616,740 young people in Lebanon today out of a resident population of around 5.9 million individuals. Approximately 27.4% of Lebanon’s total resident population is youth (aged 15-29). Both skilled and unskilled youth struggle to transition out of school and find employment in the crowded labour market, taking an average of 10 and 16 months respectively to find their first job. A large percentage of female youth do not enter the labour force or exit very early and become economically inactive, especially in periphery areas. Youth unemployment is high in Lebanon at 20.6% for that age 15 to 24. There is a low contribution of women in the labour force despite a recent slow rising trend. Rates of unemployment are worse for women and more educated individuals
The informal sector is quite large, constituting almost half of the workforce (World Bank, 2015).
Lebanon also suffers from a mismatch of skills, a high influx of foreign workers and a large number of skilled Lebanese people seeking and obtaining employment abroad. The large skill gap remains the main obstacle preventing economic growth and job creation (UNDP, 2016).
According to a World Bank report, the current economic growth is not sufficient in order to adsorb the rising number of people, seeking employment. It is estimated, that within the next 10 years, every year more than 20.000 additional persons will enter the Lebanese labor market. Lebanon needs to create five to six times more new jobs than it is currently the case (about 3800 new jobs per year) in order to absorb the 20,000 yearly labor market entrants (Robalino & Sayed, 2012).
There is a shift to the low-skill sector with a small wage increment between primary, secondary and tertiary education, and a low return on education, further stimulating the brain drain phenomenon. According to a World Bank study, 41 percent of wage earners perform jobs that are not in their scope of education and skills. Moreover, employers claim that employees lack certain skills and technical abilities that are needed to perform their jobs.
In light of the above and according to its designated role, the Economic and Social Council in Lebanon has a major role to play in assessing the existing situation and in adopting a set of recommendations to contribute to solve the problems.
 Spotlight on youth in Lebanon, UNDP 2016
2. Objectives of the assignment of the SNKE and of the Study
The overall objective of the assignment of a SNKE is to support ECOSOC in carrying out a labour market study, focusing on unemployment in Lebanon and to implement a dissemination event (“Unemployment Forum”) to present the findings and recommendations of the study to all members of the Economic and Social Council and to other relevant stakeholders for conclusions and adoption of recommendations at policy level.
This study is to build mainly upon existing studies and reports in order to create a comprehensive description and understanding of the Lebanese labor market and the various productive sectors and to propose a set of recommendations how to reduce unemployment.
The main deliverable of the assignment is a document in English, composed of an introduction, at least three chapters, benchmarking, conclusions and a set of recommendations. In addition, an “Unemployment Forum” will be organized at the premises of ECOSOC to present the findings and recommendations of the study to all members of the Economic and Social Council and to other relevant stakeholders for conclusions and adoption of recommendations at policy level
The study will undertake an in-depth analysis of existing studies regarding the Lebanese labour market and the problem of unemployment in Lebanon, and derive strategies and recommendations. The analyses shall provide a comprehensive understanding of the Lebanese labour market, current and projected trends in the productive sectors related to employment, as well as challenges and opportunities for the reduction of unemployment rate.
The study should facilitate the continuous policy dialogue and improve the participation of all stakeholders in this process. In particular, the study should:
- Provide ECOSOC with a thorough quantitative and qualitative summary description of existing studies and analysis of the Lebanese labour market with a strong focus on unemployment, trends and potentials including the identification and examination of constraints and opportunities.
- Provide ECOSOC with an in-depth understanding of the institutional set-up of the Lebanese labour market while creating a common understanding of the strengths, weaknesses, challenges, opportunities and required actions to affect unemployment in Lebanon and respective key stakeholders.
- Provide ECSOC with an comparison (benchmarking) of the current labour market situation in Lebanon to the situation in other countries from the region, namely Tunisia, Jordan and Morocco, whose labour market have some similarities with Lebanon in order to benefit from their “Lessons learnt” (positive and negative experiences)
3. Methodology and scope of work
The SNKE will act as the lead responsible researcher for the unemployment study. Since the quality of the study will depend not only on the analysis of existing studies, but also on the quality of the outcomes of the field work, the SNKE will put a special focus on the preparations for the field work as well as on supervision, follow up and quality control of the field work.
In close collaboration with the Team Leader (TL), the responsible person from ECOSOC and supported by Junior Non Key Experts, the following technical services will be delivered by the SNKE for a period of up to 29 (Twenty-Nine) working days.
The assignment consists of 4 (four) Tasks.
Task 1: Development of the methodology, approach, structure and design for the labour market analysis, focusing on unemployment
The SNKE will develop a clear methodology (format, approach, outputs) for labor market analyses incorporating feedback from stakeholder consultations. The format shall serve as point of departure for conducting the unemployment analysis as well as serve as a reference for ECOSOC regarding future analyses of the labor market
This task includes the following steps:
- Methodology Assessment
- Development of a work plan
- Desk research, Bibliography
- Research design
Task 2: Conducting analyses of the Lebanese Labour Market and on Unemployment in Lebanon
The SNKE will conduct an analysis of the Lebanese Labour market and the problem of unemployment according to the developed methodology (see Task 1), mainly focusing, but not limited to the analysis and assessment of key sources of secondary data:
- National and international relevant data, reports, studies and further recent research related to the Lebanese Labour Market and the problem of Unemployment, including those conducted and provided by Academic Research Institutes and others;
- International or national relevant reports, studies and further recent research related to the Labour Market and the problem of Unemployment in Jordan, Tunisia and Morocco in order to benchmark and draw conclusions (“Lessons Learnt”)
- ECOSOC economic and social policy papers
- qualitative review of existing research and quantitative analysis of the Lebanese labour market;
- Interviews with key actors and stakeholders, e.g. government, associations, chambers, businesses, training providers and donor-supported initiatives (if any).
This task includes the following steps:
- Analyze relevant national and international data, reports, studies and further recent research related to the Lebanese Labour Market and the problem of Unemployment
- Prepare and conduct Key Informant Interviews (KII)
- Organize, oversee and monitor all necessary field research including (if needed), focus groups, quantitative and qualitative surveys, and any other aspects that need to feed into the final deliverable (the actual field work will be implemented mainly by the JNKE for this assignment)
- Gather all data from field research including transcripts, recordings, notes and others to begin drawing conclusions and structuring the report
- Structure and Analysis: begin forming the analysis and developing a structure to the report, based on all information available
- Writing a Draft Summary Report according to a template, provided by the TL
Task 3: Finalize labour market /unemployment analyses and benchmarking
The SNKE will finalize the labour market / unemployment analyses and derive strategies, how to tackle the problem of unemployment, taking into account suggestions and insights from stakeholder interviews; produce the final report which includes an executive summary, and practical recommendations as a basis for targeted interventions by labour market stakeholders, e.g. including a matrix indicating priority areas for public and private sector intervention
This task includes the following steps:
- Write the final labour market analyses, focusing on the problem of unemployment (in English), between 20 and 25 pages (excl. list of references and possible annexes); the final document shall include a complete list of references in addition to references indicated in main body complying with good scientific quoting practice; in addition, the analysis should also include a comparison of the situation in Lebanon to experiences in other countries (benchmarking)
- Formulate strategies and recommendations for improvement of the Lebanese labour market and how to reduce the level of unemployment. Strategies shall be based on results of the analyses and include an overall strategic approach, taking also into consideration of the findings from the benchmarking with other countries in the region
Task 4: Design, facilitate and document a dissemination event at ECOSOC
The SNKE will organize and implement an “Unemployment Forum” at the premises of ECOSOC to present the findings and recommendations of the study to all members of the Economic and Social Council and to other relevant stakeholders for conclusions and adoption of recommendations at policy level.
This task includes the following steps:
- Elaborate a concept for the “Unemployment Forum” for approval by the TL and ECOSOC
- Organize, oversee and monitor all necessary preparations for the Unemployment Forum (to be mainly done by the JNKE in cooperation with ECOSOC)
- Prepare all necessary presentation materials (e.g. a Power Point Presentation) and handouts for the participants
- Together with JNKE 1, facilitate the Unemployment Forum, including moderation of the discussions
Write a short report about the Unemployment Forum
The deliverables of the SNKE are as follows:
- Inception report, outlining a clear, replicable methodology for the Labour Market analyses in Lebanon that involves both desk research and participatory elements with labor market stakeholders as well as quantitative and qualitative description and analysis of the Lebanese labour market
- A work plan for conducting the labour market analysis in Lebanon including list of Activities, responsibilities, resources, outputs and timeline
- Collection, Analysis of Inventory of relevant studies related to the labor market in Lebanon: research and collect relevant, previously carried out and published “Unemployment related" studies for Lebanon as well as findings about any ongoing or upcoming, similar studies.
- Collection and Analysis of studies related to the labor market and unemployment in Jordan, Tunisia and Morocco to do a benchmarking and identify “Lessons Learnt”
- Research design: an outline of intuitive, replicable layout and structure for "ECOSOC" labor market analyses in Lebanon
- At least 10 Key Informant Interviews (KII) prepared, conducted and documented
- Organizing, supervising and quality control of all necessary field research, to be conducted by JNKE, including (if needed) focus groups, qualitative and quantitative surveys, and any other aspects that need to feed into the final deliverable
- Data Gathering: gather all data from field research including transcripts, recordings, notes and others to begin drawing conclusions and structuring the report
- Outline / draft structure of the report, based on all information available to be approved by the TL and ECOSOC
- Draft Report (document between 10 to 12 pages, excluding list of references and possible annexes) about labor market and unemployment in Lebanon, compiling key insights, findings and hypotheses presented in an intuitive structure and layout to be shared with ECOSOC for review
- Final report: A finalized labour market analyses (between 20 and 25 pages, excl. list of references and possible annexes); the final document shall include a complete list of references in addition to references indicated in the main text body, complying with good quoting practices.
- Strategic proposals for sectorial improvements: a document between 8 and 10 pages (excl. list of references and possible annexes). Strategies shall be based on results of sector analyses and include overall strategic approach, policy for improved accessibility for low and middle-income classes.
- Unemployment Forum designed, facilitated and documented: a 1 day workshop at ECOSOC with ECOSOC Members and other stakeholders to present and discuss the study and the findings (about 50 - 80 participants)
5. Time line and working days (up to 29 wd for SNKE)
Works shall be implemented in the period from January 2019 until the end of the project.
In order to deliver all the services requested, in total up to 29 (twenty nine) working days are foreseen for the SNKE
In principle, all documents and reports have to be provided in English. The dissemination workshop has to be prepared and conducted in Arabic.
A selection of documents or outputs (if needed) will be translated from English to Arabic (or vice versa) by the Project
7. Qualification and Experience of the Experts
Qualification and key competences:
- Master Degree in Economy, Business Administration, Marketing, Labour Market, Public Administration, Social Science, Political Science, Law or other fields, relevant for this assignment
or a Bachelor degree with five (5) years of additional specific professional experience, related to the assignment
- Excellent verbal communication skills in English and Arabic. Excellent verbal communication skills in French are an asset
- Excellent writing and editing skills in English and Arabic (the motivation letter and the CV provided will be used as one of the main proofs)
- Strong interpersonal and communication skills
- Strong analytical and organizational skills
- Understanding and application of the consulting principle of capacity development
(proven by previous assignments and / or relevant further training)
- Minimum of eight (8) years of professional experience (after first graduation) as expert, manager, researcher or advisor in organizations, related to economic and social development and/or Social Dialogue
- At least five (5) years of specific working experience on expert level, related to economic or labour market studies
- Specific experience as lead researcher / expert / consultant in conducting minimum three (3) similar labour market related studies and developing strategic proposals
- Familiar with the socio-economic scene in Lebanon Work experience in ENPI region is an asset